Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study (MACC)
- MACC Researchers
- Who are the Participants?
- Letter from Dr. Forster
- The MACC Survey
- 2000-2004 Results
- 2004-2008 Results
- Presentations & Publications
- Return to MACC
Division of Epidemiology & Community Health
University of Minnesota
1300 S. Second Street
The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study is designed to measure the effects of tobacco prevention and control programs aimed at youth in the state of Minnesota and to gain a better understanding of the process by which young people go from non-smokers to smokers as they get older.
Every six months over 4,000 youth are contacted by telephone and asked about their attitudes and practices regarding tobacco. The original sample consisted of teens, whom were 12-16 years old in 2000. An additional group of 12 year olds were recruited in 2001.
In 2010 MACC participants ranged in age from 20 to 27. Originally funded for 2000-2004, the National Cancer Institute renewed funding for MACC through 2008 and again renewed funding through 2014.
The prospective, longitudinal design provides information about the link between local tobacco control programs and changes in behavior that affect susceptibility, acquisition, and prevalence of use of tobacco by youth and young adults. We will also collect additional information about the tobacco environment our participants may be exposed to as young adults, including normative expectations of groups and organizations with which they are affiliated (e.g., sports teams, volunteer organizations, religious organizations, social clubs). Data will be gathered on multiple variables at the individual, community, and state levels. Project Investigators are faculty and staff in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health at the University of Minnesota, staff at the Minnesota Department of Health, and staff at Clearwater Research, Inc.
Jean has been involved in all aspects of the study including survey and sampling design, data analysis, and formulating the model on smoking progression in the MACC sample. She has numerous publications on public health policy as a prevention study and adolescent tobacco use. Jean teaches courses in public health policy and legislative advocacy skills for public health.
Research Staff and Students
Alesci, Nina - recent PhD graduate
Choi, Kelvin – Research Associate
Fabian, Lindsey – Project Director
Hilk, Rose – Programmer
Lenk, Kathleen – Research Fellow
Mathur, Charu – recent PhD graduate
Svedberg, Pat – Executive Admin Specialist
Rode, Peter – Liaison, Minnesota Department of Health
Debra Bernat, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Humanities and Social Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine
Cheryl Perry, PhD
Professor, Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences
School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Austin Campus
Over 4,000 teens and young adults from Minnesota, North Dakota, Michigan and Kansas were originally recruited to participate in the MACC Study in 2000-2001.
|Characteristics of MACC Participants in October 2010:|
|Age Range:||20-27 yrs|
Employed Full Time
How was the MACC sample selected?
Teens participating in MACC were selected at random from the states of Minnesota, Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Clearwater Research, Inc., which is conducting the survey, did the initial recruitment in the fall of 2001. Participation in the study is strictly voluntary.
Have all the participants stayed in the study?
MACC has been very successful in retaining participants. If participants move or change their phone number they are asked to contact the MACC researchers or Clearwater Research to provide new contact information.
Additionally, staff from the University’s Health Survey Research Center (HSRC) assist with tracking participants who have moved or changed phone numbers.
How long will MACC track the participants?
The National Cancer Institute has funded this study through 2014. By the time the interviews are done, many of our participants will be in their late 20s and some in their early 30s. This will be the first cohort study examining tobacco use and uptake in teens as they transition into adulthood.
2000-2008, over 4,000 youth were contacted every six months by telephone and asked about their attitudes and practices regarding tobacco. The original sample consisted of teens that were 12-16 years old in 2000. An additional group of 12 year olds was recruited in 2001.
Beginning in October 2010, this same cohort of participants were contacted annually to answer similar questions, though expanded to include measures concerning alcohol use and exposure to alcohol policies.
The phone interview lasts between 10-20 minutes, depending upon the smoking status of the respondent.
A copy of the full MACC baseline survey that was conducted in 2000-2001 can be found here.
Where MACC participants lived at the beginning of the project:
Where MACC participants are living now:
The MACC Survey
What is the survey about?
The MACC survey asks questions regarding participant attitudes and behaviors with respect to tobacco. The survey takes about 15 minutes to complete.
What sorts of things do you hope to learn from the survey?
Very little is known about how teenagers transition from being a non-smoker to a regular smoker, which is a big part of our research. In addition, because we will be following participants as they get older, we can learn more about smoking in young adults, which has not been the subject of much research. We are also examining what impact non-smoking laws have on teen tobacco use, what impact tobacco prevention and control programs have on tobacco use in teens and what impact alcohol use and exposure to alcohol policies have on tobacco use in adults.
How do you interview so many teens?
This is a telephone survey. Until 2008, Clearwater Research staff interview participants once every six months, completing about 800 interviews a month. Beginning in October 2010, participants are contacted once a year. Clearwater Research contacts about 650 participants each month. The interviews are conducted using computer-assisted software allowing responses to be coded into a computer while the participant is on the phone.
University of Minnesota Web Sites
University of Minnesota Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center
University of Minnesota Cancer Center
CDC Tobacco Information and Prevention Source (TIPS)
National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Research Branch
National Institute on Drug Abuse
American Cancer Society
American Lung Association
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Other Web Sites
Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care
Americans for Non-Smokers Rights
American Legacy Foundation
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids
Database and Educational Resources for Treatment of Tobacco Dependence
Legacy Tobacco Documents Library
Tobacco News and Information